Unpacking the Black Box of Wilderness Therapy: A Realist Synthesis – Despite considerable progress within wilderness and adventure therapy research over the last decade, researchers are still unable to precisely answer why, how, and for whom this treatment modality works. There is also a need for more knowledge regarding the circumstances under which the treatment does not appear to be effective. In this realist synthesis, we attempt to unpack this “black box” of wilderness therapy more specifically, defined as a specialized approach to mental health treatment for adolescents.