Troubled Teen Industry Timeline

1912
1912

Devereux Foundation

Devereux Foundation

In 1912, Helen T. Devereux, a special education teacher, founded the first Devereux school in Philadelphia. She began to acquire properties and expand her operation until she officially established the Devereux Foundation as a nonprofit organization in 1938. It expanded through the years to 13 U.S. States and is one of the oldest nonprofit providers […]

1915
1915

Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School

Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School

Founded in 1915, The Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School, also known simply as the Orthogenic School or informally as the O’School, is a residential treatment center a day school, and a therapeutic school for children and adolescents typically classified as emotionally challenged. The Orthogenic School specialized in the treatment of youth with behavioral and emotional problems. […]

1917
1917

Boys Town

Boys Town

Boys Town was founded on December 12, 1917, as an orphanage for boys. Originally known as “The City of Little Men”, the organization was begun by Edward J. Flanagan, a Roman Catholic priest, while he worked in the Diocese of Omaha. Using a loan of $90, he first rented a home at 25th and Dodge […]

1940
1940

The Brown Schools

The Brown Schools

Mr. and Mrs. Bert Brown found the Brown Schools in San Marcos, TX. Mr. Brown was an accomplished writer at the time and Mrs. Brown was a former school teacher. Their goal was to establish a school for “children who had not developed normally.” In a newspaper article, Mr. Brown later stated that the school […]

1946
1946

Camp Woodland Springs

Camp Woodland Springs

Campbell Loughmiller was hired by the Dallas Salesmanship Club to run a camp for underprivileged and troubled teens. It is unknown what credentials that Campbell Loughmiller had to run such a camp at the time. He later went on to write a book on his experiences running the program. According to one of the program […]

1951
1951

Roloff Evangelistic Enterprises

Roloff Evangelistic Enterprises

Lester Roloff incorporates the Roloff Evangelistic Enterprises to pursue full-time evangelism. Most notably, Roloff preached against homosexuality, communism, television, alcohol, tobacco, drugs, gluttony, and psychology.

1954
1954

Roloff Homes

Roloff Homes

Roloff began ministering to alcoholic and homeless men. During this time, he established his first mission house in 1954. He eventually added additional children’s homes throughout Texas, Oklahoma, and Georgia. In 1968, he started establishing Roloff homes for females. Below is a list of some of the Roloff homes for children: Anchor Character Training Center, […]

1958
1958

Synanon

Synanon

Synanon was founded by Charles E. “Chuck” Dederich Sr. as a drug rehabilitation program. Dederich was an alcoholic high school dropout who was inspired by utopian notions put forth by Henry David Thoreau and BF Skinner. In Synanon, members were required to take part in a practice known as “The Game.” The Game is what […]

1963
1963

Daytop Village

Daytop Village

Daytop Village was founded by Monsignor William B. O’Brien and Daniel Harold Casriel as a drug and alcohol rehabilitation center for adults. Prior to Daytop Village, Casriel had spent time in Synanon in 1962 and was so impressed that he gave several Synanon members funding to start a community on the east coast. This was […]

1966
1966

BYU Wilderness Expeditions

BYU Wilderness Expeditions

During his undergraduate studies at BYU, Larry Dean Olsen was promised $90 to teach survival skills without modern gear to his fellow students. After an influx of students showed up for his month-long course, the school increased his pay to continue these courses. The university noticed that the students had unexplained improvement in their school […]

1966

Hyde School

Hyde School

Hyde School was founded by Joe Gauld in 1966. Joe Gauld previously worked as an educator and has a degree in business and math. Hyde is marketed as a behavior modification program for teenagers with emotional or behavioral problems and caters to children between the ages of 14-18. Throughout its operation, Hyde School and its […]

1967
1967

CEDU Educational Services, Inc

CEDU Educational Services, Inc

In 1967, Mel Wasserman and his wife Brigitta founded CEDU Educational Services, Inc in California. Mel Wasserman had previously sponsored recovering addicts at nearby Synanon and highly regarded Charles E. Dederich. The name, CEDU, was thought to be an acronym for “Charles E. Dederich University.” Several Synanon acolytes worked at CEDU such as Bill Lane […]

1970
1970

Elan School

Elan School

Elan School was founded in 1970 by psychiatrist Gerald Davidson, investor David Goldberg, and college drop-out Joseph Ricci. Joseph Ricci was a former heroin addict and former resident of Daytop Village – a direct Synanon spin-off program. In Elan’s infancy, it housed primarily adults with a sole emphasis on addiction. It wasn’t until later that […]

1970

The Seed

The Seed

The Seed was founded by Arthur Robert Barker in 1970 as a drug rehabilitation center. During its time in operation, The Seed had locations throughout Florida.  Prior to his time at Seed, Barker was a stand-up comedian and recovering alcoholic with no prior qualifications or credentials. He modeled The Seed directly after Synanon – often […]

1971
1971

Judge Rotenberg Educational Center

Judge Rotenberg Educational Center

The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center (JRC) was founded in 1971 by Matthew Israel. Similar to Provo Canyon School, it is a behaviorist program that is inspired by Skinnerian ideas.  JRC relies heavily on aversion therapy with aversive such as contingent food programs, long-term restraints, sensory deprivation, and electric shock. The program is well-known for its […]

1971

Provo Canyon School

Provo Canyon School

Provo Canyon School was founded in 1971 by Dr. Robert Crist and Jack Williams. Initially, it was a boys-only school with a campus located in Provo, Ut. Later, they expanded to open a girls’ program in nearby Orem, UT (which later moved to Springville, UT in the mid-2000s). Provo Canyon School has been marketed as […]

1976
1976

Straight, Inc

Straight, Inc

Straight, Inc was founded in 1976 by Mel and Betty Sembler in Florida after their son attended a Synanon spin-off program called The Seed.” It was created as a drug treatment program for children aged 12-21. Straight, Inc modeled much of its program after The Seed. It expanded quickly and throughout its operation, it had […]

1979
1979

Universal Health Services, Inc (UHS)

Universal Health Services, Inc (UHS)

Founded in 1979, Universal Health Services, Inc. (UHS)  provides hospital and healthcare services. It is based in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. In 2020, its annual revenues were $11.6 billion. In 1983, UHS purchased Qualicare, Inc. for more than $116 million. The purchase included 11 acute care hospitals and four behavioral health hospitals. In 2000, UHS […]

1984
1984

KIDS Centers of America

KIDS Centers of America

KIDS Centers of America were a chain of drug treatment centers for teenagers founded by anthropologist Miller Newton. Previously, Miller Newton was the National Clinical Director for Straight, Inc in Florida. He left Florida in the midst of abuse allegations being lobbed against Straight, Inc and would later form KIDS as a spin-off of Straight, […]

1987
1987

WWASP

WWASP

In 1987, three former Provo Canyon School employees – Robert Lichfield, Karr Farnsworth, and Brent Facer – opened Cross Creek Manor which would be the first of many schools. Later, Robert Lichfield incorporated the World Wide Association of Specialty Programs and Schools  (WWASP) and programs operating under the Cross Creek Manor model would be referred […]

1998
1998

Aspen Education Group

Aspen Education Group

Aspen Education Group (AEG) was formed in 1997 as a spin-off of College Health Enterprises. In late 2006, Bain Capital acquired Aspen Education Group for $300 million and became a subsidiary of Bain Capital’s CRC Health Group. In the 2009 timeframe, Aspen closed six programs. In March 2011, Aspen announced its intention to close five […]

1999
1999

NATSAP

NATSAP

The National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs (NATSAP) is a United States trade organization of therapeutic schools, residential treatment programs, wilderness programs, outdoor therapeutic programs, young adult programs, and home-based residential programs for adolescents and young adults with emotional and behavioral difficulties. It was formed in January 1999 by the founders of six programs […]

2002
2002

HEAL/COPE Ministries

HEAL/COPE Ministries

HEAL (Human Earth Animal Liberation Mission) first appeared at UW in 2002 as a registered student organization and later became COPE Ministries – a registered nonprofit church in the state of Washington. HEAL is headed by the Reverend Angela Smith who is a survivor of the infamous Provo Canyon School.  The HEAL Mission is an […]

2005
2005

Sequel Youth and Family Services

Sequel Youth and Family Services

Sequel Youth and Family Services is a private for-profit firm based in Huntsville, Alabama that runs a nationwide system of residential treatment, private pay residential, therapeutic group homes, community-based programs, and alternative education services in the United States. Sequel operates programs out of over a dozen states catering to troubled teens, foster children, and children […]

2006
2006

CAFETY

CAFETY

The Community Alliance For the Ethical Treatment of Youth (CAFETY) was an advocacy group for people enrolled in residential treatment programs for at-risk teenagers. The group’s mission includes advocating for access to advocates, due process, alternatives to aversive behavioral interventions, and alternatives to restraints and seclusion for young people in treatment programs. CAFETY was founded […]

2011
2011

SIA Organization

SIA Organization

The SIA Organization is a survivor and advocacy support nonprofit organization that was formed by survivors in 2011. Over the course of 10 years, SIA hosted a number of rallies, newsworthy events, and campaigns. Most notably, SIA supported and promoted private alternative boarding schools and outdoor programs legislation in California (SB524) in 2016, launched a […]

2019
2019

SB 267 in Montana

SB 267 in Montana

After emotional testimony from advocate Jen Shaw and program survivor Emily Carter, SB 267 passes in Montana. SB 267, sponsored by Sen. Diane Sands, D-Missoula, terminated the Board of Private Alternative Adolescent Residential or Outdoor Programs (PAARP) under the Department of Labor and Industry and moved programs under the state Department of Health and Human […]

2019

HB 282 in Montana

HB 282 in Montana

After emotional testimony from advocate Jen Shaw and survivors, SB 267 passes in Montana. The bill protects vulnerable persons in residential and outdoor programs from sexual predators by declaring in law that persons under the care of employees for the program cannot consent to a worker affiliated with the program.

2020
2020

Amanda Householder Speaks Out

Amanda Householder Speaks Out

Amanda Householder, daughter of Circle of Hope owners Boyd and Stephanie Householder, bravely speaks out on TikTok about the abuse at her parent’s program. On her Tiktok, she releases a secretly recorded video of her father ordering someone to hit one of the girls. This video quickly becomes viral and outrages the public.

2020

This Is Paris

This Is Paris

Paris Hilton releases her documentary, “This is Paris.” In her documentary, she discloses about her time in the infamous Provo Canyon School and the abuses she suffered there. During the course of the film, she meets with friends from the former program and advocates with the hopes of bringing public awareness to these programs. After […]

2020

Circle of Hope Closes

Circle of Hope Closes

After at least 24 children were removed by local child protective services in August 2020 and multiple lawsuits were filed against the Householders in September, Boyd Householder stated to the Kansas City Star that the ranch was closed for good.

2020

Provo Rally

Provo Rally

Paris Hilton joins survivors and peaceful protesters for ‘Breaking Code Silence.’ Hilton and others shared experiences and talked about the legal action moving forward. “Just walking outside in Provo right now with hundreds of people holding signs, it’s just an incredible feeling and I know that we are going to make a change and this […]

2021
2021

Utah Committee Testimony

Utah Committee Testimony

Paris Hilton and Breaking Code Silence Senior Government Coordinator, Caroline Cole, testify at a state Senate committee hearing at the Utah Capitol in favor of the bill that would require more government oversight of youth residential treatment centers and require them to document when they use restraints. The measure passed unanimously following emotional testimony from […]

2021

Boyd and Stephanie Householder Arrested

Boyd and Stephanie Householder Arrested

On March 9, 2021, Boyd and Stephanie Householder were taken into state custody. The Missouri Attorney General’s office announced that Boyd is being charged with 79 felony counts and 1 misdemeanor, including charges for child molestation and sodomy. Stephanie was also charged with 22 felony counts; all for child abuse and neglect.

2021

Breaking Code Silence Incorporates

Breaking Code Silence Incorporates

On March 22nd, 2021, Breaking Code Silence was incorporated as a non-profit corporation in California. The mission of Breaking Code Silence is to prevent institutional child abuse in residential facilities and to empower adult survivors to engage in positive self-advocacy. We utilize education, outreach, research, and community organizing to protect the civil and human rights […]

2021

SB 127 in Utah

SB 127 in Utah

Paris Hilton and Caroline Cole of Breaking Code Silence returned to Salt Lake City for a ceremonial bill signing for a law that regulates treatment centers for troubled teens in Utah. The legislation for facilities that treat teens with behavioral and mental health issues gained final approval in the Legislature in early March, about a […]

2021

HBs 557 & 560 in Missouri

HBs 557 & 560 in Missouri

Missouri state agencies gain more oversight authority over religious private facilities for troubled teens under a new law written in response to former students’ complaints of abuse. The law was drafted after women who had been placed at the Circle of Hope Girls’ Ranch in rural Missouri came forward with allegations that they’d been hit, […]

2021

SB 749 in Oregon

SB 749 in Oregon

Oregon State Senator Sara Gelser and advocates had previously rallied to pass her bill, SB749, which would regulate the educational consultant industry that refers children to wilderness and residential programs. On July 23rd, 2021, the governor of Oregon signed the bill into law and made Oregon the first state to regulate the “ed consultant” industry.

2021

SB 710 in Oregon

SB 710 in Oregon

Oregon State Senator Sara Gelser and advocates had previously rallied to pass her bill, SB710, which would prohibit deadly prone and supine restraints in Oregon residential programs. On August 6th, 2021, SB710 was signed into law on the same day that would have been Cornelius Frederick’s 18th birthday if he had not been killed in […]

2021

The Accountability for Congregate Care Act

The Accountability for Congregate Care Act

Caroline Cole, the former Legislative Director of Breaking Code Silence, and Paris Hilton travel to Washington DC to unveil the Accountability for Congregate Care Act (ACCA). The Accountability for Congregate Care Act will lay the groundwork for what Hilton and Cole refer to as a “bill of rights” for young people in congregate care facilities […]

2021

Unsilenced Incorporates

Unsilenced Incorporates

Unsilenced (US) is a survivor-led non-profit organization that was born out of a grassroots movement to stop institutional child abuse that has spanned over multiple decades. US has evolved from a hashtag  (#BreakingCodeSilence) to a social movement, to a groundbreaking nonprofit corporation!