Applying International Human Rights Standards to the Restraint and Seclusion of Students with Disabilities – No federal law in the United States prohibits school administrators from physically restraining or secluding students. State laws diverge widely. Unlike in medical, psychiatric, and law enforcement settings, where strict national standards govern the use of physical restraint and seclusion, many schools may have no, or inconsistent, guidelines to follow in deciding when the use of force upon students is appropriate.’ This lack of industry-approved protocol and standardized training of school personnel makes restraint and seclusion susceptible to misapplication and abuse. Over a ten-year period in the 1990s, 142 restraint-related deaths were reported in the United States. While restraints are dangerous even when used on adults, children face an especially high risk of death or serious injury. The students who most often suffer the ill effects of restraint are children with disabilities, whose behaviors are often misunderstood and whose needs are often not accommodated.