The outcome of non-residential youth care compared to residential youth care: A multilevel meta-analysis – This multilevel meta-analysis compared the outcomes of Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Adolescents (TFCO-A) and home-based treatment programs (HBT) with residential youth care for children and youth aged 0 to 23 years. We found a small statistically significant overall effect (d = 0.21), 95% CI [0.090-0.338], which indicated that non-residential youth care was slightly more effective than residential youth care. However, moderator analysis revealed that TFCO-A yielded a larger effect size (d = 0.36) than HBT (d = 0.08).